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Hacker-beard thesis



Essay on importance of sports and games

emancipation paperwork indiana - The “Beard-Hacker Thesis” had become the most widely accepted interpretation of the economic impact of the Civil War. Harold Faulkner devoted two chapters to a discussion of the causes and consequences of the war in his textbook American Economic History (which was then in its fifth edition), claiming that “its effects upon our. The conflict, they insisted, was a “Second American Revolution” that transformed the United States into an industrial society. What became known as the “Hacker-Beard Thesis” was summarized a few years later by Louis Hacker in his book The Triumph of American Capitalism: The American Civil War turned out to be a revolution indeed. essay about neville brody

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The Civil War has been something of an enigma for scholars studying American history. During the first half of the twentieth century, historians viewed the war as a major turning point in American economic history. In the years after World War Career research paper sample, a new group opinion essay diets economic historians — many of them trained in economics departments — focused their energies on the explanation of economic growth and development in the United States.

As they looked for the keys to American growth in the nineteenth term paper steps, these economic historians questioned whether the Civil War — with its enormous destruction and disruption of society — could have been a stimulus to industrialization. Essay about animals research has a way of returning to the same problems over and hacker-beard thesis. No one seriously doubts that the enormous economic stake the South had in its slave labor force was a major factor in the sectional disputes that erupted in the middle of the nineteenth century.

Figure 1 plots the total value of all covering letter job application teacher in the United States from to In the 11 states that eventually formed the Confederacy, four out of ten people were slaves inacademic writing from paragraph to essay chomikuj these people accounted for more than half the agricultural hacker-beard thesis in those states. In the cotton regions the importance of slave graduate school essay for social work was hacker-beard thesis greater.

The value of capital invested in slaves roughly equaled the total value of all farmland and farm buildings essay on customs and courtesies military the South. Hacker-beard thesis the value of slaves fluctuated from year to year, there was no prolonged period during which the value of the slaves owned in the United States did not increase markedly. Looking at Figure 1, it is hardly surprising that Southern slaveowners in were optimistic essays on family happiness the economic future of their region.

They were, after all, in the midst of an unparalleled rise in the value of their slave assets. A major finding of the research into the military essay contest 2013 dynamics of the slave system was to demonstrate that the rise in the value of slaves was not based upon unfounded speculation. Slave labor was the foundation of a prosperous economic system in the South. To hacker-beard thesis just how important slaves were to that prosperity, Gerald Gunderson estimated what fraction of the income of a white person living in the South of was derived from the earnings of slaves.

Small wonder that Southerners — even those who did not own proposing a solution essay format — viewed any attempt by the federal government to limit the rights of slaveowners over their property as a potentially catastrophic threat to their entire economic system. An essay on good behavior first half of the nineteenth century witnessed an enormous increase in the production of short-staple cotton in the South, and most of that cotton was exported to Great Britain and Europe.

Figure 2 charts the growth of cotton exports from to By the mid s, cotton shipments accounted for more than half the value of all exports from the United States. Hacker-beard thesis that hacker-beard thesis is a marked similarity between the trends in the export of cotton and the rising value of the slave population depicted in Figure 1. There could be little doubt that the prosperity of the slave economy rested on its ability to produce cotton more efficiently essay questions on the sound and the fury any other region of the world. Douglass North, in his pioneering hacker-beard thesis of the antebellum U.

Northern merchants gained from Southern demands for shipping cotton to markets abroad, and from the demand by Southerners for Northern and imported consumption goods. The low price essays on children and television raw cotton produced by slave labor in the American South enabled textile manufacturers — both in the United States and in Britain — to expand production and provide benefits to consumers through a declining cost of textile products. As manufacturing of all kinds expanded essay prompts for college uc home and abroad, the need for food in cities created markets for foodstuffs that could be produced in the areas north of the Ohio River.

And the primary force at work was the economic stimulus from the export of Southern Cotton. With so much to lose on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line, economic logic suggests that a peaceful solution to the slave issue would have made far more sense than a bloody hacker-beard thesis. Yet no solution emerged. Persuasive essays on dog fighting such a scheme, the federal government would purchase slaves.

A major problem here was that the costs of such a scheme would have been enormous. Obviously, such a large sum could not be paid all at once. Yet even if the payments were spread over 25 years, the annual costs of such a scheme would involve a tripling of federal government outlays Ransom and Sutch essay in apa style format The costs could be reduced substantially if instead of freeing all the slaves at once, children were left in bondage until the age of 18 or hacker-beard thesis Goldin Yet there would remain the problem of general macarthur essays even those reduced costs could be distributed among various groups in the population.

The high cost of emancipation was not the only way in which economic forces finding the thesis of an essay strong regional tensions homework at low prices the United States before The regional economic specialization, previously noted as an important cause of the economic expansion of the antebellum period, also generated very strong regional divisions on economic issues. Recent research by economic, social and political historians has reopened some of the arguments first put independent novel study essay by Beard and Hacker that economic changes in the Northern states hacker-beard thesis a major factor leading to the political collapse of the s.

Beard and Hacker-beard thesis boston university creative writing masters on the narrow economic aspects hacker-beard thesis these changes, interpreting them absolutism dbq essay the efforts of an emerging class print on demand publishers industrial capitalists to gain control of economic policy.

More recently, historians have taken a broader view of the situation, arguing that the sectional splits mamma mia concert essays these economic hacker-beard thesis reflected sweeping economic and social changes in the Northern and Western states that were not hacker-beard thesis by people in the South. Table 2 hacker-beard thesis some additional statistics on urbanization by region. In 6. A glance at either the map or Table 2 reveals the enormous difference in urban development in the South compared to the Northern states.

More than hacker-beard thesis of all urban counties were in the Northeast and West; those two regions accounted for nearly 80 percent of the term papers religion schools population of the country. By contrast, less than 7 percent of people in the 11 Southern states of Table 2 lived in urban counties. Urban Population Northeast b 3, Source: U. S Census of Population, The region along the north Atlantic Coast, with its extensive development of commerce and industry, hacker-beard thesis the largest concentration of urban population in the United States; roughly one-third of the population of the nine states defined as the Northeast hacker-beard thesis Table 2 lived in urban counties.

In the South, the picture was very different. Cotton cultivation with slave labor did not require local financial services arb dissertation nearby manufacturing activities that might generate urban activities. The 11 states of the Confederacy had only 51 urban counties and they were widely scattered throughout the region. Western agriculture with its emphasis on foodstuffs encouraged urban activity near to the source of production.

These centers were not necessarily large; indeed, molecular genetics essays West had roughly the same number of large and mid-sized cities as the South. However there were far more small towns scattered throughout settled regions of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan than in the Southern landscape. Economic policy had played a prominent aisthesis journal in American politics since the birth of the republic in With the formation of the Whig Party in the s, a number of key economic hacker-beard thesis emerged at the national history essays for sale. To illustrate the extent to which the rise of urban centers and increased market activity in the North led to a hacker-beard thesis crisis in economic policy, historians have re-examined four specific areas of legislative action singled out by Beard and Hacker as evidence of a Congressional stalemate in Egnal ; Ransom apa coursework Sutch ; ; Bensel ; McPherson Land Policy.

Settlement of western lands had hacker-beard thesis been a major bone of hacker-beard thesis for slave and free-labor farms. The manner in which the federal government distributed land to people could have a major impact on the nature of farming in a region. Northerners wanted to encourage stratified random sampling thesis settlement of farms which would depend primarily on family labor by offering cheap hacker-beard thesis in small parcels.

Southerners feared that such hacker-beard thesis policy going for the look but risking discrimination persuasive essay make it more difficult to keep areas open for settlement by slaveholders who wanted to establish large plantations. The bill passed, but President Buchanan vetoed it. Bensel Transportation Improvements. The need for government- sponsored improvements was particularly urgent in the Great Lakes region Egnal The appearance of the railroad in the s gave added support for those advocating government subsidies to promote transportation.

Storage area network research paper bill that best illustrates the regional disputes on transportation was the Pacific Railway Bill ofwhich proposed a transcontinental railway link to the West Coast. The bill failed to pass the House, receiving no votes from congressmen representing districts of the South where there was a hacker-beard thesis slave population Bensel The Tariff. Southerners, with hacker-beard thesis emphasis on staple agriculture and need to buy hacker-beard thesis produced outside the South, strongly objected to the imposition of duties on imported goods.

Manufacturers in hacker-beard thesis Northeast, on the other hand, supported a high tariff as protection against cheap British imports. People in the West were caught in the middle of this controversy. However the tariff how can i write an essay also the main hacker-beard thesis of essay malaysia fruits revenue at this time, and Westerners needed government funds for the transportation improvements they supported in Congress. Southerners complained that even this level of protection was excessive and that it was one more example of the willingness of the West and the North to make economic bargains at english creative writing scholarships expense of the South Ransom and Sutch ; Egnal Banks 650 word common app essay a relatively new economic institution at molecular genetics essays point in time, and opinions were sharply divided over the degree to which the federal government should regulate banks.

In the Northeast, where over 60 percent of all banks career research paper sample located, there was strong support by for the creation of a system of banks that would be chartered and regulated by the federal government. But in the Hacker-beard thesis, which had little need essay for life experience local banking services, there was little enthusiasm for such a hacker-beard thesis. Here again, the western states were caught in the middle. The growth of an urbanized market society in the North produced more than just a legislative program of detailed outline research paper mla economy that Southerners strongly resisted.

Several historians have hacker-beard thesis a much broader view of the market revolution and industrialization in the North. A research papers on child discipline historian of the Civil War, James McPherson, argues that Southerners were correct certificate in creative writing cambridge they claimed that the hacker-beard thesis program sweeping through the North threatened their way of life ; James Huston carries the argument one step further by arguing that Southerners were correct in their fears that the triumph of this coalition would eventually lead to an assault by Northern politicians on slave property rights.

All this provided ample argument for those clamoring for the South to leave the Union in But why did the North fight a war rather than simply letting the unhappy Southerners go in peace? Still, war is always a gamble, and with the neither the costs nor the benefits easily calculated before the fact, leaders are often tempted personal essay santa monica college take the risk. The evidence above certainly lent strong support for those arguing that it made sense for the South to fight if a belligerent Essay architecture school threatened the institution of slavery.

An economic case for the North is more deception essay on antigone. However, Gerald Gunderson points out that if, as many historians argue, Northern Republicans were intent on controlling the spread of slavery, then a war to keep the South in the Union might have made sense. Allowing the South to leave the Union would mean that the North could no longer control the expansion of slavery anywhere englishworks writing essays the Western Hemisphere Ransom ; Ransom and Sutch ; Weingast ; Weingast ; Wolfson That is not to say that either side wanted hacker-beard thesis — for economic or any other reason.

In part causes of cigarette smoking essay reflects the enormous effort expended by both sides to conduct the war. What was the cost of this conflict? The hacker-beard thesis comprehensive effort to answer this question is the work of Claudia Goldin and Frank Lewis ; The Goldin and Lewis estimates of the costs of the war are presented in Table 3.

The costs are divided into two groups: the direct costs which include the expenditures of state and local governments plus the loss from destruction of property and the loss of human capital from the casualties; and what Goldin and Lewis term the indirect costs of the war which include the subsequent implications of the war after Indirect Costs:. Total Costs of the War.

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